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***As a convenience for Summer Scholars, EEOP provides the following links. The content of the links is not maintained by ITEP or EEOP. EEOP maintains no responsibility for the information on the following link sites.***



The Interaction of Fire and Atmosphere (PDF)
Shows the interaction of fire and the atmosphere. Discusses how a large fire is with the influence of the atmosphere and how it will affect the fire’s behavior. Also, goes in-depth of how the fire’s action is a huge issue. This is an article by Wendy Catch.

Coupled Atmosphere-Fire Modeling
Breaks down the Northwest Territories Crown Fire Experiment and Infrared Analysis that is during the months of June and July, the Development of a New Fire Model, and Sensitivity Test on Shear and Slope.

Forest Fire Research
This is an editorial that is about the connection among the forest fire behavior and the wind. However, the NCAR scientists have allowed a computer model that traces the interaction and prediction of the fire and atmosphere.

Very descriptive on the lower and higher atmosphere, includes excellent examples and pictures. Also, includes the weather, Clouds & Particles, Climate in Cities, Ocean, Food & Climate, and the People changing the climate.

Emissions From Fires to the Atmosphere I
From the SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute explains the sources of the undesirable imissions of the atmosphere and fire. Information on how pollutants can play a drastic role. astmosphere1.htm


Modeling Realistic Water and Fire (PDF)
It is an overview of a computers technique that graphs a realistic model of fire and water. The main real problem is putting water floods and real life problems with the concept to manage water floods.

Modeling Realistic Water and Fire (HTML)
Models a realistic technique on a computer that graphs a realistic water and fire. It also shows the importance both are. Contains and explains the abstract, motivation, previous work, how to model, techniques to model water, techniques to model fire, similarities and differences, the experience, conclusion and future work, and the acknowledgment.

The "Rebirth" of Water Mist Fire-Fighting Technology (PDF)
Illustrates the renewal of water and the mist of a fire and technology. This Newsletter also recognizes the advantages and the disadvantages of the mist technology of water. Describes the significant changes of water and fire.

V Soils, Water, and Watersheds
Encloses the idea of the effects of fire on soils, water, and the watersheds. Which are tremendously various in the prediction and the establishments of the local data base that contains information that could help in the future.


Soil Hydrology Under Fire
Surrounds the information of the types of function that fire can have on a soil, this process is also in-depth description. Also, investigates on how the soil moisture can influences fire severity and explains the conversely. Paper written by Megan Anderson in October 21, 1996.

Fire Effects: Ecology and Management of Forest Soils (Powerpoint)
An interesting power point filled with examples, information, pictures, and graphs. Very elaborate details on soils around the world and the effects on fire with those different soils. Power point is very well-expressed and easy to understand.

Geology of Soils
A document that explains that once a fire goes over a soil the soil is then affected. This can be affected for years. Also discusses the plant communities that rely on very good soil to survive. Explains why fires are important and a healthy process within the ecosystem.

What Does Fire Do to Your Soil?
Explains and answers the question “What Does Fire Do to Your Soil?”. Describes what factors are critical for a soil and the impacts a fire can create.

Other Environmental Measures: Soils
Illustrates the importance of a soil. Clarifies the measure within a soil, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, Related Measure of declines in soil quality, plus fire and soils, in addition the soil properties such as soil horizons, physical properties, Biological properties, as well as organic matter.

Soil and Fire
This website is about the Ecological changes with fire and water. Also gives examples with the changes in species composition and forest structure. Graph is shown that is from the National Forest Burned and Trend for the western states, 1945-1997.



Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest (page 1 of 2)
Researching the Ponderosa Pine Forest in the southwest and distinguishing the problems over the thousands of years, which are conducting studies before and after Euro-America settlement and the effects that it also brought. Fire brought a different view and played a role in the Ponderosa Pine problems. Also illustrate the damaging traits of the postsettlements of the Ponderosa Pine Forest Ecosystem. In addition it explains the presettlement of the Ponderosa Pines in a certain area per acre.

Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest (Page 2 of 2)
The second half of “Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forest of the Southwest” research and website. This part goes more in-depth with how fire helps the Ponderosa Ecosystem. The study area is located in the Fort Valley Experimental forest northwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. Clarifies the restoration treatments and the outlook on the ponderosa pine forest, therefore fire is important to the ecosystem.

Ponderosa Pine Fire Ecology
Goes into the deepness of the ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Plateau which has develop over the years. Studies showed that the trees have adapted to the climate and the habitat. Gives an explanation why the 1900’s the pattern of fire drastically changed. With the Ponderosa Pine there is thickets are replace by grasses due to the fire that make better, however; the United States forest service also sees this as a concern.

Fire & Ecosystem Health
Give details that fire is a necessity of the most western forest ecosystem. Fire balances the ponderosa pine and other dry forests to maintain a healthy and clean environment. This website put in plain words that fire helps allows forests and the ponderosa pine to be a success.

Modeling Ecological Restoration (PDF File)
This is a very detail and descriptive document about the ecological restoration experiment specifically consisting of fire within a ponderosa pine forest. In this document it discusses the model performance and recent ecological changes and comparing ecological restoration treatments. The years are also provided of the changes, differences, and comparing. Also, shown are the effects of restoration treatments, results model verification, and the methods.

Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the Southwestern Region
Fire is an excellent alternative to help get rid of insects and disease within the ponderosa pine forest and other trees. This happens to be a prescribed fire that will assist to having a healthy forest. The article converses about the research that has been conducted since 1992 in New Mexico and Arizona.

Research on Wildfire Hazard Reduction in Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems at Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon National Park’s research on wildfire hazard reduction in the ponderosa pine ecosystem at the Grand Canyon National Park.


Forest and Woodland Restoration in the Southwest
The alteration of the pinyon-juniper forest and other forest have resulted to the livestock grazing, fire suppression, lodging, and other Euro-American land uses in the Southwest. Article discusses the increases in range and density of the pinon-juniper forest. Also discusses the high erosion rates and the current ecological patterns of the pinon-juniper forest environment.

The Role of Fire in Juniper and Pinyon Woodlands: A Descriptive Analysis (PDF)
With this publication it gives a layout of the juniper- pinyon ecosystem, along with fire, the history of fire, and fire storms woodlands. There is also important information that is provided about the juniper-pinyon ecosystem. Is a 16 page detail text that contains very good information.

Website offers ranges/acres of the pinyon-juniper all over the United States. Eventually, will also discuss the climate, vegetation, and management that contains fire of the pinyon-juniper ecosystem. Also, have pinyon-juniper pictures.

Species: Juniperus monosperma
Examples of fire and pinyon-juniper are well informative. Has quite a few research going on with pinyon-juniper ecosystem, however; right in the middle is the fire ecology and graph that is within the pinyon-juniper forest.

Otis Mountain Ecosystem Restoreation Project Environmental Assessment OR-025-99-50 (PDF)
Summary that identified the prescribed burning and the changes in time with both the juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands in the west and different ranges.

Demo Area Burn
The ecosystem reaction to the watershed-scale burns located in the great basin of the pinyon and juniper woodlands. The website also implements prescribed burning programs.

Would Ecological Landscape Restoration Make the Bandelier Wilderness More or Less of a Wilderness?
Clarifies a prescribed fire and a wildlife reintroduction within the pinyon and juniper ecosystem.


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