JOULE - Standard unit for energy. Another common energy unit is the calorie, which contains 4,184 joules. Dietary "calories" are actually kilocalories (103 calories) and are often written with a capital "C".
JOULE’S FIRST LAW -- Heat, Q, produced when a current, I, flows through a resistance, R, for a specified time, t, is:
JUPITER MASS - Mass of the planet Jupiter (2 x 1027 kg); equal to ~10-3 Msun.
JUPITER’S GREAT RED SPOT - Feature in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter ranging from ~25,000 to 40,000 kilometers in longest dimension (large enough to contain two to three Earths). The Red Spot, with wind speeds of 560 km/h, is produced by strong convection currents and has probably persisted for centuries. First definitely recognized in 1879, the Great Red Spot appears identical to the “Permanent Spot” recorded by Jean-Dominique Cassini in 1665, and may be related to a spot noted by British observer Robert Hooke in 1664. If so, the Great Red Spot has endured for at least 350 years.