2000 Program Abstracts
Analysis of the Relationship Between Brainwave Entrainment and Hypnotic Susceptibility
Brandy Queen, Zachary Haga, and Larry Stevens
Subjects in two groups of
various degrees of hypnotic susceptibility (eight lows, seven moderates)
participated in six 40-minute sessions of binaural-beat sound stimulation. Half
of each group were exposed to a control tape of pink noise while the other
halves heard tapes of binaural-beat patterns designed to increase theta
brainwave activity. Pre- and post-stimulus measures of susceptibility were taken
with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C. SHSS:C scores were
analyzed utilizing the t statistic and it was concluded that there was no
significant difference between control and experimental group SHSS:C
measurements and no significant increase in either groupís post-stimulus scores.
David Krpata, David Wagner and Lee C. Drickamer
Burrow placement by
Gunnisonís prairie dogís (Cynomys gunnisoni) may be directly related to
the objects around them, soil depth, and elevation. The placement of a burrow
may also be influenced by surrounding burrows. Thirty 30m x 30m plots were
randomly placed inside 30 colonies in Northern Arizona. These plots were mapped
by dividing the plot into 5m x 5m grids. Within each plot, I recorded active
and inactive burrows, whether or not burrows were located under objects, and
presence of vegetation, rocks, and logs. Recorded objects were all large enough
to cover up a burrow hole, which is 15cm wide on average. Soil depth was also
recorded from the center of the plot as well as elevation. I examined
correlations between all variables. Logs exhibited a strong correlation with
total burrows, active burrows, and burrows under objects. There was also a
strong correlation between burrows under objects and rocks. Vegetation and soil
depth showed weak correlations. Elevation was strongly correlated with total
burrows, active burrows, and burrows not under objects, but not with total
number of burrows under an object. Soil depth had no relationship to burrows.
Burrows were found to be uniformly spaced within 1.5m of each other but were
independent of each other outside of that. Gunnisonís prairie dogs may be more
likely to place a burrow under a log or rock because it provides more protection
from predators and has more stability. Burrows may have a uniform spatial
pattern because of territoriality.
A Field Study of the
Relative Abundance and Diversity of Birds on Gunnisonís Prairie Dog Colonies in
John Stansbury, Lee Drickamer, David Wagner,
and Jon Gallie
Prairie dogs may or may not act as a keystone species in grassland ecosystems (Stapp 1998). Regardless of this designation, many researchers agree that prairie dogs influence the diversity and abundance of vertebrates on colonies (Miller et. al. 2000). The object of this experiment was to determine if the diversity and abundance of birds on Gunnisonís prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colonies differs from the diversity and abundance on nearby random sites. I sampled for bird diversity and abundance in 10 prairie dog colonies and on paired random sites across the known range of Gunnisonís prairie dog. I conducted the bird counts in an informal survey and recorded species number and abundance, time sampled, weather, and surrounding vegetation type. I found the diversity and abundance of birds to be greater on prairie dog colonies than on the random sites. Although I found significant results, there are many possibilities for error present in the study so these results must be viewed with caution.
Virginia Blankenship and Kenneth Warren
Rasch (1980) postulated that the likelihood of a person agreeing with an item on a test is determined by the difference between difficulty of the item and ability of the person. A small proportion of respondents endorse an item that is difficult. In this study the item is the TAT picture and weakness of cues corresponds to difficulty. Individuals with higher ability levels respond positively to more items than those with less ability (Fox & Jones, 1998). In this study, participants wrote stories to TAT pictures and those stories were coded for motives (achievement, power, and intimacy). We refer to individuals' strength of motive (corresponding to ability). The Rasch model provides an ordering of the difficulty of test items (the effectiveness of a picture to elicit a particular motive). Fit statistics indicate whether any item (TAT picture) or any respondent deviates from unidimensionality, thus not measuring what was intended (Green, 1996).
C.N. Slobodchikoff, E.M. Husband and E. Fung
In tackling the problem of
meaning in animal signals, a new system of vocal analysis must be addressed. Of
increasing importance is the change in frequency of an alarm call over time and
the correlation between two or more calls.
By mathematical modeling alarm calls with polynomial equations, a greater amount
of information can be gleaned from a sonogram. This new precision will answer
some of the problems of current methodology in animal signaling.
A Simple Protocol
for Analyzing Gene Expression in Chick Embryos
Adrian Ortiz and Mark A. Sturtevant
We developed an antibody staining protocol for visualizing the distribution of protein products from several different genes in whole chick embryos. Our aim was to have a single protocol that would allow us to stain for different functional classes of proteins, including secreted proteins, cell membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear proteins. After trying several different protocols, we found one that was satisfactory for all of these types of proteins in whole mount chick embryos. This poster describes this protocol, and shows examples of results. Our protocol should be useful for doing double and even triple antibody stains in chick embryos, and it is sufficiently simple that it can be used in the classroom laboratory for teaching immuno-histochemical techniques.
THE EFFECTS OF
JUVENILE ENVIRONMENT, FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CONDITION AND SATELLITE MALES ON
BREEDING SITE SELECTION IN A MARINE ISOPOD, PARACERCEIS SCULPTA (HOLMES)
Animals must locate
suitable breeding sites as well as suitable mates to successfully reproduce. The
conditions individuals experience during development, their physiological state
when mating opportunities arise, and the types of individuals present when
reproduction is imminent, may strongly influence individual reproductive
success. We investigated three aspects of breeding site preference in P.
sculpta using field-collected and laboratory-reared individuals. We found
there was no effect of juvenile environment on the responses of a-males to
artificial sponges. Lab-reared and field-collected a-males showed no difference
in their tendency to colonize. Female reproductive condition significantly
influenced female responses to a-males in sponges. Females with mature ovaries
showed the strongest tendency to pair with a-males; females with little ovarian
development did not enter sponges. Females showed no preference for breeding
aggregations with or without satellite (g-) males. These results confirm the
value of behavioral experiments using lab-reared individuals in this species and
suggest that the physiological state of females strongly influences their
responses to males.